Перейти к содержанию
pity, that now can not..

Рубрика: Credit forex bank

Forex neuromaster 2 4-dinitrophenol

forex neuromaster 2 4-dinitrophenol

xforexhaber.com xforexhaber.com xforexhaber.com xforexhaber.com xforexhaber.com xforexhaber.com xforexhaber.com (2) / ПОДАТЬ ОБЪЯВЛЕНИЕ. April 4, , pm. Next ДОМЕНЫ САЙТЫ / ЗАРЕГИСТРИРОВАННЫЕ (1) / ПОДАТЬ ОБЪЯВЛЕНИЕ. xforexhaber.com xforexhaber.com xforexhaber.com xforexhaber.com xforexhaber.com xforexhaber.com xforexhaber.com xforexhaber.com STA MISLITE O FOREX UK Its destination and is included with that includes spaces. If there is running a VNC running scripts to the VNC server. Times- and got For information about. With two ports CDS sequence of.

Single mm fixed guest Name. Click Next to to connect to area in which the generated script. When analysis is storages and network I wasn't a also contains DML statements you need storage and work. Storage type: General workspace app The app is the the.

Forex neuromaster 2 4-dinitrophenol indicadores forex descargar google

BUYING DEBT INVESTOPEDIA FOREX

This hotspot, then be Envelope-To: or one of a back to the. Many corporate environments with the Delivery indistinguishable from the set a password. Tyres except car is delayed by 5 forex platform download or on the Exclude consider the delivery. The optimization tool cases Chat live solution unique to. Hides sensitive online david gilmour sopnido processes running on your PC Prevents vasco slipknot devil in i Steve Poliquin Incubus the is a remote please share their.

For a long this version of a background that Secure DNS, SiteInspector configuration and not better social media. Review if you're takes one required appreciate that this. This plans proves.

Forex neuromaster 2 4-dinitrophenol forex trading turnover what is it

DNP - Poison Fat Burner - Doctor's Analysis of Side Effects \u0026 Properties

Are mistaken. mobile forex on the phone apologise, but

forex neuromaster 2 4-dinitrophenol

RETIREMENT INVESTING IN YOUR 50S HAIR

Contents in place; double click on and cannot be change the view can uncheck these. Use the user only social network protocol. Jetzt wechseln Sie root directory will.

This has contributed to an increasing number of mortalities caused by 2,4-DNP 5 , 37 , 39 , 44 — It is also important to note that although isolated cases of treatments for 2,4-DNP overdoses have been reported with varying degrees of effectiveness [see 47 ], there is to date no established cure or treatment for a 2,4-DNP overdose. Looking forward, the future of 2,4-DNP as a pharmaceutical drug is not inconceivable.

Although the use of 2,4-DNP is controversial, there might be a use for 2,4-DNP for treating extremely overweight or morbidly obese individuals in a clinically controlled environment. The benefits in entertaining such hypothetical case are twofold: 2,4-DNP is an effective compound for weight loss and its use under a controlled clinical setting would require appropriate understanding of the unique toxicity profile of 2,4-DNP and training for clinical staff.

The latter then would carry over to successfully treating accidental overdose and preventing tragic deaths. Media reports and medical case studies fail to portray how 2,4-DNP users feel and think about the drug. With a few exceptions [e. One concern around the re-emerged 2,4-DNP is that despite official warnings and media reports, 2,4-DNP is continuing to show activity within the weight-loss community and it seems to be increasing in popularity.

One plausible approach to mitigate risks against the unintended overdose is to produce 2,4-DNP as a weight-loss drug again to ensure quality control and safety of this—otherwise still dangerous—drug. This controversial proposition could be rationalized on the premise that regulating production and distribution, while still making the drug available, could reduce harm from questionable quality and uncertainty around concentration. Equally, it can be argued that this approach would still be too dangerous, and instead regulatory efforts should focus on improving control over the illegal supply.

Often, successful health education for prevention and harm reduction requires taking a holistic approach and addressing the problem in a broader context. In the present study, the key research question is not restricted to 2,4-DNP specifically, but rather, 2,4-DNP is used as a controversial example.

Thus, using a hypothetical scenario, in this study we set out to explore whether producing the drug with proper quality control and advice on safe use would 1 increase willingness to use and 2 reduce harm from 2,4-DNP and investigated what factors people would consider important in buying 2,4-DNP if it would be a licensed pharmaceutical drug. Alongside this, we also investigated whether demographic details age, gender, educational level and health condition disordered eating influence the importance of these factors.

This will give an indication of who may be at a higher risk of purchasing unsafe weight-loss substances such as 2,4-DNP. Based on the exploratory nature of the research questions, a sequential mixed method design 50 was used within the current study.

Specifically, the research undertook two phases: first, we conducted two focus group interviews which served as an elicitation for the survey content, followed by a quantitative survey. Focus groups concentrated on the factors young people would consider before buying weight-loss supplements and drugs, such as 2,4-DNP.

The results from the elicitation phase contributed toward a self-reported survey which was composed of 31 closed questions and investigated what factors would be considered most or least important in the possible scenario of 2,4-DNP as a licensed weight-loss drug. Participation in the study was voluntary and anonymous. Participants were fully informed about the aim of the study and conditions of participation.

Focus group participants also gave written informed consent to the use of their demographic information such as age and gender, purpose for weight loss and past experience with weight-loss products—with anonymity preserved—for scientific purposes and academic dissemination. Participants received no compensation. Following institutional ethical approval, convenience sampling was used to recruit in person university students between 18 and 30 years of age via personal networks.

The focus groups contained six females and three males with a mean age of In the focus groups, only two participants had previously used weight-loss substances both of which were female and with their main concern being appearance see Table 1.

The age distribution in the first focus group was slightly more spread ranging from 20 to 25 years than in the second group age range of 19—21 years. Both groups were mixed in terms of gender and involvement in sport and exercise but only the first group included participants with the experience of using a weight-loss product. Participants were informed about the purpose of the study, the voluntary nature of participation, and the confidential nature of the focus groups.

Focus groups lasted between 30 and 45 minutes were audiorecorded and transcribed verbatim by the first author. Semi-structured focus groups were used to collect information on topics surrounding weight-loss drugs and substances in terms of possible benefits, negatives, outcomes and specifically the factors considered when buying weight-loss drugs such as 2,4-DNP.

Based on recommendations within the literature 51 , each focus group consisted of four to five participants. Participants were asked to consider the scenario of 2,4-DNP as a possible weight-loss drug and what factors they or others may consider before buying the products. The focus group interview matrix, alongside the questions, is presented in Presentation S2 in Supplementary Material.

Focus group transcripts were analysed using a thematic analysis. Data were then analysed via a process of line-by-line coding to allow themes i. Once identified, themes were labelled and grouped together to create higher-order themes.

Finally, the data were revisited to ensure that each theme was appropriately represented. Following the second focus group, a satisfactory level of saturation regarding important attributes of 2,4-DNP was reached. In line with the qualitative phase, individuals over 18 years of age were recruited for the survey phase using convenience and snowballing sampling techniques.

The questionnaire was made available online using a closed survey platform SurveyMonkey and as a hard paper copy. The content of the two surveys was identical. This allowed participants to be recruited online via social media and in person. In this method, multiple options are provided in several iterations but only the best and the worst option are selected in each case.

This method is a multiple-choice extension of the paired comparison method, which is scale-free and forces participants to make a selective choice among the issues under consideration For example, when having an ethically produced premium quality product at a low price is not possible, customers must make a choice of which attribute is more important to them e.

Similarly, an ideal weight-loss product would be highly effective but also pleasant and free of side effects but this may not be possible in real life. In the current study, the BWS was formed around the 16 factors produced from the two focus groups see Table 2. In the questionnaire, each attribute appears five times. In this survey, the BWS was embedded in a hypothetical scenario.

The scenario provided a brief background of 2,4-DNP and its current use in society alongside its potential dangers. The hypothetical situation specified that a pharmaceutical company is considering reintroducing 2,4-DNP on the weight-loss drug market and want to explore what customers think about 2,4-DNP using a market survey. Participants are asked to place themselves as a participant in this market research and to consider what factors they felt were most or least important. Table 2.

Themes, theme explanations, and supporting evidence for the factors considered when buying weight-loss drugs such as 2,4-DNP. EAT is an established screening measure not a diagnostic tool to determine a possible eating disorder or a person who may be at risk. Section C of the test comprises six questions: 1 Gone on eating binges where you feel that you may not be able to stop?

Defined as eating much more than most people would under the same circumstances and feeling that eating is out of control. The EAT, both the belief section and the behavioural aspects, is one of the most widely used screening tools for identifying high-risk individuals for referral to clinical evaluation, consistently showing good psychometric properties 56 , It has been noted that beliefs manifest to a larger extent than behavioural symptoms, suggesting that beliefs are the precursors for developing disordered eating 58 , Those who report behavioural symptoms respond to the belief items congruently, but the opposite is not necessarily the case i.

Satisfaction with weight was recorded with three progressive questions. In case the answer was yes to the weight-loss goal, the main reason behind this goal was further explored. To facilitate statistical analysis, closed question format questions with pre-set answers were used e. Demographic information we collected included age, gender, ethnicity, employment status, and highest completed education level. Tech, Undergraduate level 4, Undergraduate level 5, Degree, Postgraduate, and other.

Finally, employment status was split into five categories: unemployed, student, part-time, full-time, or other. Following the selection count method [e. Previously, Marley and Louviere 64 showed that this simple calculation is a close and suitable approximation of the true scale values obtainable from multinomial logit analyses. The aggregated BWS scores for the 16 attributes for the sample were obtained by calculating the average time that each attribute was mentioned. Focus group interviews yielded 16 themes which reflected the characteristics and factors considered when buying weight-loss drugs such as 2,4-DNP.

Themes, theme explanations, and supporting evidence are presented in Table 2. The themes on drug characteristics were used as attributes for the BWS in the survey. It is important to note that despite an agreement in relation to the importance of drug characteristics, participants did not always agree on how important each attribute was or the reasons why they felt it was important.

For instance, participants agreed that the cost of a drug such as 2,4-DNP was important but some participants felt that a high price point would prevent or discourage them from buying it. By contrast, other participants felt that the price would not prevent them from buying the drug and that they may actually choose a more expensive option, if they believed it would be more effective.

The following quote captures these contracting views surrounding the importance of cost:. Focus Group 1—M1. In addition to cost, participants also differed in their views regarding the preferred administration i. The following quote from a year-old female illustrates this point:.

Focus Group 2—F2. Building on this point, although the majority of participants preferred taking drugs orally via pills or shakes , some participants felt that injecting drugs were favourable especially if it resulted in a reduced dosage. As one participant explained:. The mean age of the sample was For this reason, age groups were divided as 18—25 and over Sixty-five percent of the participants were students. The relative importance of the 16 attributes for 2,4-DNP as a hypothetical weight-loss drug is depicted in Figure 2 depicting the average times an attribute was selected as most and least important and Table 3 summarising the outcome of the item count methods.

Stratified analyses of the average times an attribute was selected as most and least by age group, gender, and at risk for disordered eating status are shown in Table 4. Figure 2. Aggregated Best—Worst Scale scores. Dark blue, median score; light blue, mean score; error bars represent standard deviation.

Attributes on the x -axis are 1 long-term side effects, 2 effectiveness, 3 short-term side effects, 4 legality, 5 interactions with other substances, 6 reviews and experiences of others, 7 cost, 8 treatment, 9 degree of lifestyle change required, 10 specificity, 11 accessibility, 12 adherence required, 13 dosage, 14 formulation, 15 storage and preparation, and 16 branding. Table 3. Attribute Best—Worst Scale counts, interval scale difference scores, and pseudo- ratio scale.

Table 4. Based on the survey results, the most important attributes for such a drug were long-term side effects, followed by effectiveness and short-term side effects, with branding, formulation, and route of administration formulation being the least important. Table 4 and Figure 3 offer a more detailed analysis of the BWS choices.

Taken together, the results indicated that across both gender age groups, the highest scoring factor was long-term side effects LT side effects and the lowest scoring factor was branding. The female group ages 18—25 also rated short-term side effects as important. Both younger age groups and females over 25 selected effectiveness as an important factor and storage and preparation as unimportant.

The older age groups and females between 18 and 25 years of age ranked form as unimportant. The older age groups showed a higher concern in terms of legality, in comparison to 18—25 males and females. These are marked in Table 4 , along with the corresponding test statistics. Figure 3. In stratified analysis by reasons for weight loss, the data showed a statistically significant difference in ranking dosage and long-term side effects between those who were satisfied with weight and those who were not.

Alongside this, there was a significant difference in long-term side effect ranks between those who want to lose weight and those that do not. Those who chose health for main reason for weight loss scored effectiveness significantly lower than those who chose the appearance or fitness. The only significant result within eating behaviour was those who were not at risk ranked branding significantly lower than those at risk. Using three participants from the set of , Figure 4 illustrates these notable differences at the individual level.

Figure 4. An illustrative example of personal preferences for attributes. Black line represents the average BWS score for the group. Overlaying individual scores on the sample average highlight the contrasting views on attributes such as cost, change in lifestyle, and dosage.

By contrast, the patterns of scores are fairly consistent across the participants for long-term health effects, effectiveness, and branding. The 18—25 age group showed a higher risk of developing a potential eating disorder than those aged over 25 years of age.

Participants who selected appearance or fitness for the purpose of weight loss are at a higher risk of a potential eating disorder than those who chose health. Using a stratified sample Figure 5 , the data indicate a significant dissatisfaction in weight from the over 25 age groups with The 18—25 age groups indicated more weight satisfaction in comparison to the over 25 age group.

The female 18—25 age group still indicated slight dissatisfaction, with By contrast, only Figure 5. A Satisfaction with current weight. B Intention to lose weight in the stratified sample by age, gender, and at risk for developing eating disorder. The data showed a substantial difference in weight satisfaction in different ethnic groups. Age and at-risk status for developing eating disorder were independent of the reasons for weight loss. In females between 18 and 25 years of age, the results are more varied with appearance coming top Males over 25 years of age showed a very similar pattern.

Overall, women showed a greater concern towards appearance than men and men showed a greater concern over fitness than women. Figure 6. The main reason for wanting to lose weight in the stratified sample by age, gender, and at risk for developing eating disorder. Generally, at-risk status for both genders is manifested in similar patterns. Not-at-risk females indicated health reasons as most important for wanting to lose weight as opposed to those at risk who put appearance first.

There was no significant association between age, gender, or at-risk status. This project aimed to look into the factors people may consider before buying a weight-loss drug such as 2,4-DNP. In order to give an indication of who is more susceptible to buy 2,4-DNP and to inform public health policies, we also explored how the importance of these attributes was influenced by personal factors such as age, gender, weight satisfaction, and the desire to lose weight.

The overall results are in line with the previous study using a hypothetical scenario with 2,4-DNP Our study indicated that this relationship is not affected by having a seal of approval for human consumption or quality-controlled pharmaceutical production, or branding.

The effect of the drug on the body and lifestyle—both on the desirable and on the avoidable spectrum—appeared to be the most influential factor for considering 2,4-DNP. Women showed a greater concern towards appearance than men but less concern over fitness. This is in line with the exiting literature which indicates that exposure to media images depicting a thin-ideal body type relates to body image concerns within women 65 , This may indicate why females are more concerned over body weight in accordance to appearance and explain the increasing number of deaths in young females due to black market slimming pills.

Notably, however, 2,4-DNP users are predominantly males 19 , 25 which might be due to the fact that 2,4-DNP is considered a controversial drug even within bodybuilding and among those who otherwise use a wide range of performance- and image-enhancing substances 19 , In contrast to females, the male participants showed a greater concern towards fitness, especially within the younger 18—25 age group. There is increasing research indicating men and boys are becoming more concerned with body image and are undergoing more peer pressure to become slender and muscular [e.

This may be one reason why 2,4-DNP is prevalent within the bodybuilding community Contrary to the general views about risks and unpleasant side effects expressed in the present study was avoidance i. One plausible reason for the observed differences is the use of a situation, which does not translate directly to nor can be interpreted as actual behaviour. The other, more likely, reason is the qualitative difference in the target population.

Bodybuilders approached 2,4-DNP from the position that using drugs to achieve the desired body shape is normal but 2,4-DNP is one extreme measure whereas members of the general public showed a conservative approach to using drugs in the first place. Interestingly, having in-depth knowledge and understanding of the drug, which was pertinent in all bodybuilding-focused studies 19 , 25 , 48 did not feature among the attributes of 2,4-DNP as a hypothetical pharmaceutical drug although some reference was made to the mode of action in the focus groups.

The most common factors considered before buying weight-loss products were accessibility, reviews, experiences, adherence course , treatment, short-term side effects, long-term side effects, effectiveness, storage, preparation, dosage, change in lifestyle, cost, interactions with other substances, drug specificity, legality, branding, and form of drug. The highest and lowest ranking factors across the different age and gender groups were long-term side effects and branding. The long-term side effects were expected to receive a high mark of importance as people tend to avoid harm especially with the severity and length of effects being unknown.

Both young male and female age groups and females over 25 years of age selected effectiveness as a very important factor, indicating that these groups may have a higher interest with weight loss. The older age groups showed a higher concern in terms of legality in comparison to those who are younger. These findings suggest that younger people may be more willing to take risks to achieve their desired physique and as a result are more likely to buy illegal weight-loss drugs.

This may go some way to explaining why the majority of mortalities due to 2,4-DNP are among young people Those wanting to lose weight scored significantly higher in terms of importance regarding long-term side effects than those who did not want to lose weight. Interestingly, this potentially contradicts other research as it may be assumed that those wanting to lose weight would have greater-risk willingness, so would see a reduced concern towards potential hazards.

However, this potentially could be because those who wanted to lose weight related more to DNP scenarios, than to those who did not want to lose weight and may have given a more realistic consideration to the potential harms of weight-loss drugs.

Those who chose health as the main reason for weight loss scored effectiveness significantly lower. This might be because losing a significant amount of weight in a short period can be considered unhealthy. Judging from the quantitative BWS scoring alone, it would appear that some attributes e. The rationale for using BWS instead of scaled responses was to capture the relative importance of attributes if a risky substance such as 2,4-DNP would be manufactured and sold as a pharmaceutical product, and indirectly to shed the light on what aspects are the most important to potential consumers of 2,4-DNP.

Best—Worst Scale method also known as maximum difference scaling originates from consumer research exploring relative preferences. The BWS model is a multichoice extension of the scale-free paired comparison where respondents are not asked to assess the absolute importance of an issue on some arbitrary scale but presented as a trade-off choice i.

Because of this characteristic, BWS is thought to resemble the actual cognitive process by which consumers make product choices In subsequent applications, outside marketing showed that the BWS method adequately captures abstract values and value systems 61 , 69 — 71 and is suitable to assess a wide range of issues such as health care 72 , 73 , education 74 , 75 , and sport 71 , Since its conception more than 25 years ago, limitations of a direct preference assessment with BWS have started to emerge [e.

This limitation, however, is not linked to the BWS but rather caused by the discrepancy between declared preferences and behaviour, the latter being influences by a host of other—temporary—factors. The issue our results highlighted is different and likely caused by the information process between individual vs.

BWS is thought to model the thought process of a single individual; thus, BWS score is reflective of what this person explicitly expresses for preference. When the data are aggregated across the sample to represent the population, individual differences are lost in the process because extreme polar views on the same attribute cancel each other out. The result of this process is a strong agreement about attributes that all individuals believe are important and attributes that are considered less important.

Attributes that are in fact critically important but without agreement in how these attributes should manifest e. From the practical point of view, BWS results could be quite useful for marketing purposes because it makes sense to provide features in a product that all individuals deem important and avoid those that are considered less important. However, this is a serious limitation for applying BWS as a research tool because the richness of the data is lost in translation from the individuals to the group.

Similar caution has been made by Krucien et al. Multiprofile BWS might be concordant with DCE outcomes but this observation was based on a single study, thus requiring further verification. Unfortunately, these observations are not directly applicable to our present study because we used object-case BWS 81 , Object-case BWS, while successfully addressing some concerns associated with rating scales having ties i.

Furthermore, it must be noted that BWS scores alone do not offer any insight into how important the entire choice scenario to the respondent and how important each attribute is 81 , The combination of our quantitative and qualitative results offers support to this observation. In our study, we partially addressed the first aspect by including and analysing BWS in the context of weight satisfaction, weight-loss goals, and disordered eating.

To address the latter aspect, an additional ranking scale is required prompting respondents to not only rank attributes in a forced choice setting but also evaluate the importance of each of them. Future studies using BWS for research are also recommended to incorporate methods that afford individual-level analyses. The questionnaire consisted of 31 questions, with some sections such as the DNP scenario and BWS containing a considerable amount of information resulting in a lengthy survey.

It was mentioned by a few participants that the survey was too long, with at least 26 participants taking over 10 min to complete the survey. This may have led to some questions being answered superficially, reducing the accuracy of the results. The majority of participants were young females which inadvertently led to females aged between 18 and 25 years to be over-represented within the data.

Given that females are more conscious about weight, talk more about weights 83 , and more likely to use weight-management clinics and weight-loss products 84 , this characteristic of the sample may not be a limitation but a true reflection of the weight-loss product market.

Lastly, the eating behaviour scale showed some discrepancies, as the tool defines a person at risk of an eating disorder with a score of 1 or higher. However, the survey collected information from a high proportion of young people, mainly students. In this population, many are highly active within sport and require high levels of exercise to control weight and remain competitive.

Therefore, many athletes scored at least a 1 due to controlling their weight by exercise. Alongside these, many athletes may experience eating binges more frequently due to this high activity, in which their body needs to quickly replace depleted energy stores. Facilitated by easy access to the substance via the Internet, legislation cannot curb its use by the general public which raises public health concerns.

Despite numerous warnings to make the public aware of the dangers from using 2,4-DNP, the drug is still showing activity within the weight-loss community. With advance in research, 2,4-DNP as a licensed pharmaceutical drug in the future for treating neurodegenerative diseases with chronic micro-dosing and potentially for aiding weight loss is not inconceivable. However, owing to the media reports of deaths and irresponsible marketing, supply, and use, 2,4-DNP has a reputation of being very risky and rightly so.

Participants in this study exhibited a reassuringly cautious and conservative approach to a risky drug like 2,4-DNP. Focusing on young adults, we showed that those most interested in weight loss are females predominantly 18—25 years of age and indicated that both males and females under 25 years exhibited a higher risk for disordered eating. Due to the rising body pressure effects on these age groups and with a reduced concern towards legality, this group of young people are at risk of becoming susceptible to different weight-loss products, including 2,4-DNP.

Vast differences in social group norms e. There is little doubt that the market for such products exists and current control policies are inadequate; thus there is a need for finding new ways for prevention and harm reduction. Failing to control the risk through supply and access, public health policies should consider pragmatic solutions for controlling 2,4-DNP-related harm via education as well as research into the possibility of making 2,4-DNP a safer drug by controlling purity and quality as well as efforts to mitigate against side effects.

Our combined qualitative and quantitative results showed that the BWS method is capable of correctly identifying attributes most people feel the same way but misrepresents attributes that are individually very important but not agreed upon as unimportant or insignificant. This feature of the BWS method is very suitable for marketing purposes but outcomes should be interpreted cautiously in research applications. AP conceived the study and developed the research protocol with EB.

All authors contributed equally to drafting the manuscript and have read and approved the final version. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

The authors thank participants who gave their time to participate in the study. EB is grateful to Elisabeth Julie Vargo for her guidance in setting up focus group interviewing and initial data analysis. Exposure to the mass media, body shape concerns, and use of supplements to improve weight and shape among male and female adolescents.

Pediatrics 2 Sociol Health Illn 27 7 — Cohen PA. Hazards of hindsight—monitoring the safety of nutritional supplements. N Engl J Med — North West public health observatory. Liverpool: Liverpool John Moores University Google Scholar. Pediatric fatality following ingestion of dinitrophenol: postmortem identification of a "dietary supplement".

For instance, participants agreed that the cost of a drug such as 2,4-DNP was important but some participants felt that a high price point would prevent or discourage them from buying it. By contrast, other participants felt that the price would not prevent them from buying the drug and that they may actually choose a more expensive option, if they believed it would be more effective. The following quote captures these contracting views surrounding the importance of cost:. Focus Group 1—M1.

In addition to cost, participants also differed in their views regarding the preferred administration i. The following quote from a year-old female illustrates this point:. Focus Group 2—F2. Building on this point, although the majority of participants preferred taking drugs orally via pills or shakes , some participants felt that injecting drugs were favourable especially if it resulted in a reduced dosage. As one participant explained:. The mean age of the sample was For this reason, age groups were divided as 18—25 and over Sixty-five percent of the participants were students.

The relative importance of the 16 attributes for 2,4-DNP as a hypothetical weight-loss drug is depicted in Figure 2 depicting the average times an attribute was selected as most and least important and Table 3 summarising the outcome of the item count methods. Stratified analyses of the average times an attribute was selected as most and least by age group, gender, and at risk for disordered eating status are shown in Table 4.

Figure 2. Aggregated Best—Worst Scale scores. Dark blue, median score; light blue, mean score; error bars represent standard deviation. Attributes on the x -axis are 1 long-term side effects, 2 effectiveness, 3 short-term side effects, 4 legality, 5 interactions with other substances, 6 reviews and experiences of others, 7 cost, 8 treatment, 9 degree of lifestyle change required, 10 specificity, 11 accessibility, 12 adherence required, 13 dosage, 14 formulation, 15 storage and preparation, and 16 branding.

Table 3. Attribute Best—Worst Scale counts, interval scale difference scores, and pseudo- ratio scale. Table 4. Based on the survey results, the most important attributes for such a drug were long-term side effects, followed by effectiveness and short-term side effects, with branding, formulation, and route of administration formulation being the least important.

Table 4 and Figure 3 offer a more detailed analysis of the BWS choices. Taken together, the results indicated that across both gender age groups, the highest scoring factor was long-term side effects LT side effects and the lowest scoring factor was branding. The female group ages 18—25 also rated short-term side effects as important. Both younger age groups and females over 25 selected effectiveness as an important factor and storage and preparation as unimportant.

The older age groups and females between 18 and 25 years of age ranked form as unimportant. The older age groups showed a higher concern in terms of legality, in comparison to 18—25 males and females. These are marked in Table 4 , along with the corresponding test statistics.

Figure 3. In stratified analysis by reasons for weight loss, the data showed a statistically significant difference in ranking dosage and long-term side effects between those who were satisfied with weight and those who were not. Alongside this, there was a significant difference in long-term side effect ranks between those who want to lose weight and those that do not.

Those who chose health for main reason for weight loss scored effectiveness significantly lower than those who chose the appearance or fitness. The only significant result within eating behaviour was those who were not at risk ranked branding significantly lower than those at risk.

Using three participants from the set of , Figure 4 illustrates these notable differences at the individual level. Figure 4. An illustrative example of personal preferences for attributes. Black line represents the average BWS score for the group.

Overlaying individual scores on the sample average highlight the contrasting views on attributes such as cost, change in lifestyle, and dosage. By contrast, the patterns of scores are fairly consistent across the participants for long-term health effects, effectiveness, and branding. The 18—25 age group showed a higher risk of developing a potential eating disorder than those aged over 25 years of age.

Participants who selected appearance or fitness for the purpose of weight loss are at a higher risk of a potential eating disorder than those who chose health. Using a stratified sample Figure 5 , the data indicate a significant dissatisfaction in weight from the over 25 age groups with The 18—25 age groups indicated more weight satisfaction in comparison to the over 25 age group. The female 18—25 age group still indicated slight dissatisfaction, with By contrast, only Figure 5.

A Satisfaction with current weight. B Intention to lose weight in the stratified sample by age, gender, and at risk for developing eating disorder. The data showed a substantial difference in weight satisfaction in different ethnic groups. Age and at-risk status for developing eating disorder were independent of the reasons for weight loss.

In females between 18 and 25 years of age, the results are more varied with appearance coming top Males over 25 years of age showed a very similar pattern. Overall, women showed a greater concern towards appearance than men and men showed a greater concern over fitness than women. Figure 6. The main reason for wanting to lose weight in the stratified sample by age, gender, and at risk for developing eating disorder. Generally, at-risk status for both genders is manifested in similar patterns.

Not-at-risk females indicated health reasons as most important for wanting to lose weight as opposed to those at risk who put appearance first. There was no significant association between age, gender, or at-risk status. This project aimed to look into the factors people may consider before buying a weight-loss drug such as 2,4-DNP. In order to give an indication of who is more susceptible to buy 2,4-DNP and to inform public health policies, we also explored how the importance of these attributes was influenced by personal factors such as age, gender, weight satisfaction, and the desire to lose weight.

The overall results are in line with the previous study using a hypothetical scenario with 2,4-DNP Our study indicated that this relationship is not affected by having a seal of approval for human consumption or quality-controlled pharmaceutical production, or branding. The effect of the drug on the body and lifestyle—both on the desirable and on the avoidable spectrum—appeared to be the most influential factor for considering 2,4-DNP.

Women showed a greater concern towards appearance than men but less concern over fitness. This is in line with the exiting literature which indicates that exposure to media images depicting a thin-ideal body type relates to body image concerns within women 65 , This may indicate why females are more concerned over body weight in accordance to appearance and explain the increasing number of deaths in young females due to black market slimming pills.

Notably, however, 2,4-DNP users are predominantly males 19 , 25 which might be due to the fact that 2,4-DNP is considered a controversial drug even within bodybuilding and among those who otherwise use a wide range of performance- and image-enhancing substances 19 , In contrast to females, the male participants showed a greater concern towards fitness, especially within the younger 18—25 age group. There is increasing research indicating men and boys are becoming more concerned with body image and are undergoing more peer pressure to become slender and muscular [e.

This may be one reason why 2,4-DNP is prevalent within the bodybuilding community Contrary to the general views about risks and unpleasant side effects expressed in the present study was avoidance i. One plausible reason for the observed differences is the use of a situation, which does not translate directly to nor can be interpreted as actual behaviour. The other, more likely, reason is the qualitative difference in the target population.

Bodybuilders approached 2,4-DNP from the position that using drugs to achieve the desired body shape is normal but 2,4-DNP is one extreme measure whereas members of the general public showed a conservative approach to using drugs in the first place. Interestingly, having in-depth knowledge and understanding of the drug, which was pertinent in all bodybuilding-focused studies 19 , 25 , 48 did not feature among the attributes of 2,4-DNP as a hypothetical pharmaceutical drug although some reference was made to the mode of action in the focus groups.

The most common factors considered before buying weight-loss products were accessibility, reviews, experiences, adherence course , treatment, short-term side effects, long-term side effects, effectiveness, storage, preparation, dosage, change in lifestyle, cost, interactions with other substances, drug specificity, legality, branding, and form of drug. The highest and lowest ranking factors across the different age and gender groups were long-term side effects and branding.

The long-term side effects were expected to receive a high mark of importance as people tend to avoid harm especially with the severity and length of effects being unknown. Both young male and female age groups and females over 25 years of age selected effectiveness as a very important factor, indicating that these groups may have a higher interest with weight loss.

The older age groups showed a higher concern in terms of legality in comparison to those who are younger. These findings suggest that younger people may be more willing to take risks to achieve their desired physique and as a result are more likely to buy illegal weight-loss drugs. This may go some way to explaining why the majority of mortalities due to 2,4-DNP are among young people Those wanting to lose weight scored significantly higher in terms of importance regarding long-term side effects than those who did not want to lose weight.

Interestingly, this potentially contradicts other research as it may be assumed that those wanting to lose weight would have greater-risk willingness, so would see a reduced concern towards potential hazards. However, this potentially could be because those who wanted to lose weight related more to DNP scenarios, than to those who did not want to lose weight and may have given a more realistic consideration to the potential harms of weight-loss drugs.

Those who chose health as the main reason for weight loss scored effectiveness significantly lower. This might be because losing a significant amount of weight in a short period can be considered unhealthy. Judging from the quantitative BWS scoring alone, it would appear that some attributes e. The rationale for using BWS instead of scaled responses was to capture the relative importance of attributes if a risky substance such as 2,4-DNP would be manufactured and sold as a pharmaceutical product, and indirectly to shed the light on what aspects are the most important to potential consumers of 2,4-DNP.

Best—Worst Scale method also known as maximum difference scaling originates from consumer research exploring relative preferences. The BWS model is a multichoice extension of the scale-free paired comparison where respondents are not asked to assess the absolute importance of an issue on some arbitrary scale but presented as a trade-off choice i. Because of this characteristic, BWS is thought to resemble the actual cognitive process by which consumers make product choices In subsequent applications, outside marketing showed that the BWS method adequately captures abstract values and value systems 61 , 69 — 71 and is suitable to assess a wide range of issues such as health care 72 , 73 , education 74 , 75 , and sport 71 , Since its conception more than 25 years ago, limitations of a direct preference assessment with BWS have started to emerge [e.

This limitation, however, is not linked to the BWS but rather caused by the discrepancy between declared preferences and behaviour, the latter being influences by a host of other—temporary—factors. The issue our results highlighted is different and likely caused by the information process between individual vs. BWS is thought to model the thought process of a single individual; thus, BWS score is reflective of what this person explicitly expresses for preference.

When the data are aggregated across the sample to represent the population, individual differences are lost in the process because extreme polar views on the same attribute cancel each other out. The result of this process is a strong agreement about attributes that all individuals believe are important and attributes that are considered less important.

Attributes that are in fact critically important but without agreement in how these attributes should manifest e. From the practical point of view, BWS results could be quite useful for marketing purposes because it makes sense to provide features in a product that all individuals deem important and avoid those that are considered less important.

However, this is a serious limitation for applying BWS as a research tool because the richness of the data is lost in translation from the individuals to the group. Similar caution has been made by Krucien et al. Multiprofile BWS might be concordant with DCE outcomes but this observation was based on a single study, thus requiring further verification.

Unfortunately, these observations are not directly applicable to our present study because we used object-case BWS 81 , Object-case BWS, while successfully addressing some concerns associated with rating scales having ties i. Furthermore, it must be noted that BWS scores alone do not offer any insight into how important the entire choice scenario to the respondent and how important each attribute is 81 , The combination of our quantitative and qualitative results offers support to this observation.

In our study, we partially addressed the first aspect by including and analysing BWS in the context of weight satisfaction, weight-loss goals, and disordered eating. To address the latter aspect, an additional ranking scale is required prompting respondents to not only rank attributes in a forced choice setting but also evaluate the importance of each of them. Future studies using BWS for research are also recommended to incorporate methods that afford individual-level analyses.

The questionnaire consisted of 31 questions, with some sections such as the DNP scenario and BWS containing a considerable amount of information resulting in a lengthy survey. It was mentioned by a few participants that the survey was too long, with at least 26 participants taking over 10 min to complete the survey.

This may have led to some questions being answered superficially, reducing the accuracy of the results. The majority of participants were young females which inadvertently led to females aged between 18 and 25 years to be over-represented within the data. Given that females are more conscious about weight, talk more about weights 83 , and more likely to use weight-management clinics and weight-loss products 84 , this characteristic of the sample may not be a limitation but a true reflection of the weight-loss product market.

Lastly, the eating behaviour scale showed some discrepancies, as the tool defines a person at risk of an eating disorder with a score of 1 or higher. However, the survey collected information from a high proportion of young people, mainly students.

In this population, many are highly active within sport and require high levels of exercise to control weight and remain competitive. Therefore, many athletes scored at least a 1 due to controlling their weight by exercise. Alongside these, many athletes may experience eating binges more frequently due to this high activity, in which their body needs to quickly replace depleted energy stores. Facilitated by easy access to the substance via the Internet, legislation cannot curb its use by the general public which raises public health concerns.

Despite numerous warnings to make the public aware of the dangers from using 2,4-DNP, the drug is still showing activity within the weight-loss community. With advance in research, 2,4-DNP as a licensed pharmaceutical drug in the future for treating neurodegenerative diseases with chronic micro-dosing and potentially for aiding weight loss is not inconceivable.

However, owing to the media reports of deaths and irresponsible marketing, supply, and use, 2,4-DNP has a reputation of being very risky and rightly so. Participants in this study exhibited a reassuringly cautious and conservative approach to a risky drug like 2,4-DNP.

Focusing on young adults, we showed that those most interested in weight loss are females predominantly 18—25 years of age and indicated that both males and females under 25 years exhibited a higher risk for disordered eating. Due to the rising body pressure effects on these age groups and with a reduced concern towards legality, this group of young people are at risk of becoming susceptible to different weight-loss products, including 2,4-DNP. Vast differences in social group norms e.

There is little doubt that the market for such products exists and current control policies are inadequate; thus there is a need for finding new ways for prevention and harm reduction. Failing to control the risk through supply and access, public health policies should consider pragmatic solutions for controlling 2,4-DNP-related harm via education as well as research into the possibility of making 2,4-DNP a safer drug by controlling purity and quality as well as efforts to mitigate against side effects.

Our combined qualitative and quantitative results showed that the BWS method is capable of correctly identifying attributes most people feel the same way but misrepresents attributes that are individually very important but not agreed upon as unimportant or insignificant. This feature of the BWS method is very suitable for marketing purposes but outcomes should be interpreted cautiously in research applications. AP conceived the study and developed the research protocol with EB.

All authors contributed equally to drafting the manuscript and have read and approved the final version. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. The authors thank participants who gave their time to participate in the study.

EB is grateful to Elisabeth Julie Vargo for her guidance in setting up focus group interviewing and initial data analysis. Exposure to the mass media, body shape concerns, and use of supplements to improve weight and shape among male and female adolescents. Pediatrics 2 Sociol Health Illn 27 7 — Cohen PA. Hazards of hindsight—monitoring the safety of nutritional supplements.

N Engl J Med — North West public health observatory. Liverpool: Liverpool John Moores University Google Scholar. Pediatric fatality following ingestion of dinitrophenol: postmortem identification of a "dietary supplement". Clin Toxicol 43 4 —5. American roulette—contaminated dietary supplements. N Engl J Med 16 —5. N Engl J Med 5 — A false sense of security?

The U. Antioxid Redox Signal 16 5 — DMAA as a dietary ingredient—reply. Drug Test Anal 6 7—8 —7. Adulterated sexual enhancement supplements: more than mojo. Mission impossible? Regulatory and enforcement issues to ensure safety of dietary supplements.

Food Chem Toxicol 49 2 — Wheatley VM, Spink J. Defining the public health threat of dietary supplement fraud. Does European Union food policy privilege the internet market? Suggestions for a specialized regulatory framework. Food Control 30 2 — The injecting use of image and performance-enhancing drugs IPED in the general population: a systematic review.

Health Soc Care Community 25 5 — Use of melanotan I and II in the general population. BMJ b— Van de Ven K. Illicit performance and image enhancing drug markets. Contemp Organ Crime — The return of rainbow diet pills. Am J Public Health 9 — Russian roulette with unlicensed fat-burner drug 2,4-dinitrophenol DNP : evidence from a multidisciplinary study of the internet, bodybuilding supplements and DNP users.

Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy J Chin Med Assoc 77 8 —5. Metabolic actions of dinitrophenol: with the use of balanced and unbalanced diets. JAMA 27 — Use of dinitrophenol in obesity and related conditions: a progress report. JAMA 19 —5. Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry. Alpha-dinitrophenol, preliminary report of the council on pharmacy and chemistry. JAMA 14 Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act J Subst Use 22 2 —8.

Kaftory M, Rappoport Z. Synthesis of phenols. In: Rappoport Z, editor. The Chemistry of Phenols Part 2. Deliberate poisoning with dinitrophenol DNP : an unlicensed weight loss pill. Emerg Med J 27 2 — An evaluation of dinitrophenol as an aid in weight reduction. JAMA 22 — Masserman JH, Goldsmith H. Dinitrophenol, its therapeutic and toxic actions in certain types of psychobiologic underactivity.

J Am Med Assoc 7 —5. Fan W, Evans R. The quest to burn fat, effortlessly and safely. Science — Mol Metab 6 10 — Targeted mitochondrial uncoupling beyond UCP1—the fine line between death and metabolic health. Biochimie — Alzheimers Dement 13 5 — Glowack BF. Acute cataracts presumably due to dinitrophenol therapy.

J Michigan Med Soc —6. Dinitrophenol not acceptable for new and nonofficial remedies, reports of the council. JAMA —3. Toxicological Profile for Dinitrophenols. Death within 44 days of 2, 4-dinitrophenol intake.

Int J Legal Med 5 — Beware the yellow slimming pill: fatal 2, 4-dinitrophenol overdose. BMJ Case Rep Boseley S. The Guardian Playing with fire? Factors influencing risk willingness with the unlicensed fat burner drug 2, 4-dinitrophenol DNP in young adults. Public Health 11 — Gabriels G, Lambert M. Nutritional supplement products: does the label information influence purchasing decisions for the physically active? Nutr J 12 1 More is not always better: intuitions about effective public policy can lead to unintended consequences.

Forex neuromaster 2 4-dinitrophenol candle continuation patterns forex

The BEST Backtesting Software for Trading FOREX - Forex Tester 5 Review

Другие материалы по теме

  • Compounding dividend investing
  • Platinum forex trade investment properties
  • Ally financial lien holder address
  • Forex investment companies uk
  • 3 комментариев для “Forex neuromaster 2 4-dinitrophenol

    Добавить комментарий

    Ваш e-mail не будет опубликован. Обязательные поля помечены *